AD 963 Count Siegfried of the Ardennes builds a castle on the Bock promontory called the Lützelburg (“Little Castle”).
1354 Luxembourg becomes a duchy.
1447 The Duchy of Luxembourg comes under the rule of the Habsburgs through marriage.
1542 The city of Luxembourg is captured by the French.
1554 The Spanish capture the city of Luxembourg.
1713 Under the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht, Luxembourg comes under the control of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
1815 Congress of Vienna establishes the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg as a sovereign, neutral state.
1839 Under the terms of the Treaty of London, the western part of the Grand Duchy is ceded to Belgium.
1867 Luxembourg becomes an independent state.
1914 Germany occupies Luxembourg in World War I.
1940 Germany invades Luxembourg again in World War II.
1944 American troops liberate Luxembourg; in December, Germany launches its “Ardennes Offensive”; the Battle of the Bulge follows as chiefly American forces repel the attack.
1945 Luxembourg becomes a member of the United Nations.
1948 Luxembourg joins Belgium and the Netherlands in forming BENELUX, a trading and economic union.
1949 Luxembourg abandons neutrality and joins NATO.
1992 Luxembourg ratifies the Maastricht Treaty, securing its place in the European Union.
1994 City of Luxembourg declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.