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To help members understand the latest automotive technology so they can purchase vehicles that best suit their needs, the Automobile Club of Southern California's Automotive Research Center (ARC) began testing and reviewing vehicles over a decade ago

For the 2024 edition, we include testing and ranking cars and light trucks with the latest technology, including having at least one advanced driver-assistance system (ADAS) feature. In addition to vehicle evaluation, the guide covers a number of pertinent automotive topics in detail—for example, the latest advanced safety features, how to properly maintain your vehicle, and new vehicles coming to market in the next few years.

2023 Volvo S90 Recharge Ultimate Bright Theme

Vehicle Type: Large Plug-In Hybrid
 overall score
Category Ranking: 3

Vehicle Price

Base Price: $70,500
Price as Tested: $78,390

Fuel Information

Fuel Type: Electricity/premium
Fuel Capacity (gal): 15.9
120V Charge Time: 3 miles per hour
240V Charge Time: 7.6 miles per hour
EPA City mpg28
EPA Highway mpg33
EPA Combined mpg: 30
EPA Combined MPGe: 66
EPA-Est. Electric Range (mi): 38

Advanced Safety Features

  • Adaptive Cruise Control [S]
  • Advanced Headlights [S]
  • Automatic Emergency Braking [S]
  • Blind-Spot Warning [S]
  • Driver Monitoring [S]
  • Forward-Collision Warning [S]
  • Lane-Departure Warning [S]
  • Lane-Keeping Assistance [S]
  • Rear Cross-Traffic Warning [S]
  • Reverse Automatic Emergency Braking [S]
  • [S] Standard, [O] Optional

Overall Observations

On its way to an all-electric future, Volvo is electrifying most of its cars and SUVs; 7 of its 9 current models are either pure electric or have plug-in hybrid variants. Its handsome flagship S90 luxury sedan has had a plug-in option since 2018. The S90's powerful drivetrain (455 hp) delivers both quick acceleration and decent gas mileage (30 mpg combined). Its adaptive air suspension soaks up bumps well, providing a compliant, comfortable ride. Transmission shifts are smooth, as are gas-electric transitions. The S90's 18.8-kWh battery provides an estimated 38 miles of all—electric driving, nearly twice as much as earlier versions. The S90's minimalist Scandinavian interior is clean, understated, and uncluttered, with premium materials and excellent fit and finish. There's plenty of headroom and legroom for all passengers and enough room in the trunk for their gear. And the optional Bowers and Wilkins stereo provides audiophile sound quality. Being a Volvo, the S90 puts a premium on safety; a complete list of advanced safety features is standard on all S90s—including a surround-view camera and rear automatic emergency braking. Negatives are minimal. The plug-in hybrid battery takes a long time to charge; the rearview camera view lacks sharpness; the high rear deck and rear headrests impede rear visibility; and the infotainment screen is small. Finally, not everyone loved the bare, minimalist interior.

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Pros and Cons


  • Powerful drivetrain, quick acceleration
  • Adaptive air suspension provides a comfortable ride
  • Good EV-only range (up to 38 miles)
  • Plenty of room for passengers and cargo
  • Excellent fit and finish inside and out


  • Long charging times (5 hours)
  • High rear deck and rear head rests restrict visibility
  • No wireless charging for smart devices
  • Interior storage spaces are lacking

Vehicle Specifications

Model year tested: 2023
Number of passengers (F/R): 2/3
Curb weight (lbs): 4628.0
Exterior L / W / H (in): 195.6 / 74.0 / 56.7
Wheelbase (in): 115.8
Number of air bags: 8
Warranty (months/miles): 48/50,000
Tire manufacturer and model: Pirelli P Zero
Front and rear tire size: 245/40 R20
Max towing capacity (lbs): 2,000
Headlight type: LED
Transmission type: Hybrid drive
Drivetrain type: All wheel
Engine/motor: 2.0L I4 turbo
Engine horsepower @ RPM: 317 @ 6,000
Electric motor horsepower: 143
Combined system horsepower: 455

Test Data

Test Vehicle Scores

Advanced Safety Features:


Fuel Efficiency:


EPA Emissions Score:





Handling: 6.72
Quality and Drivability: 8.25

Ride Quality:


Interior Size:


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Interior Noise:


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