Peace & Quiet
The Shaping of Edinburgh
c3000 BC Area first settled by hunting tribes. c1000 BC First farmers are joined by immigrant Beaker People, who bring pottery and metal-working skills. AD 78 Romans come north and defeat Calgacus. c200 on Departure of the Romans followed by waves of invading Angles, Britons, Vikings, and Scots from Ireland. c950 MacAlpin kings repel Northumbrians, who have held southern Scotland for 300 years. 1018 Malcolm II defeats Northumbrians. c1069 Malcolm III marries Margaret, sister of Edgar Atheling, heir to the English throne but usurped by William the Conqueror. Margaret lives on Castle Rock, where a chapel is built after her death. 1128 David I, Margaret's son, founds Abbey of Holyrood as a penance. 1314 Thomas Randolph retakes Edinburgh Castle from the English in name of Robert the Bruce. 1329 Edinburgh receives Royal Charter from Robert the Bruce. 1349 Black Death kills a third of population. 1435 St Antony's Chapel built on Arthur's Seat. 1457 James II decrees against the playing of `futeball and golfe' as they interfere with archery practice. 1477 Charter granted by James III for markets to be held in the Grassmarket. 1498 Holyroodhouse built by James IV. 1513 James IV, and many citizens, killed at Battle of Flodden, construction begun on Flodden Wall for the defence of Edinburgh. 1544 Edinburgh attacked by English forces, who fail to take the city. 1566 David Rizzio, the favourite of Mary, Queen of Scots, murdered by Darnley and conspirators at Holyroodhouse. 1582 Townis College chartered; it later becomes Edinburgh University. 1603 James VI moves Court to London. 1633 Edinburgh officially becomes capital of Scotland. 1637 Tron Kirk built. 1638 Signing of the National Covenant, to defend the Scottish `Kirk'. 1639 Parliament House built; used by Scottish Parliament until 1707. 1675 Physic Garden founded; forms nucleus of Royal Botanic Garden. 1695 Bank of Scotland chartered. 1692-8 Run of bad harvests leads to riots in the city. 1702-7 Scottish Parliament discusses, and finally ratifies, Act of Union, voting itself out of existence. 1736 The Porteous Riots. 1767 First plans for New Town adopted. 1769 Construction of Princes Street starts. 1770 Construction of Queen Street starts. 1771 Sir Walter Scott born in Edinburgh. 1787 First edition of Robert Burns' poems published. 1817 The Scotsman founded. 1824 Fire rages for three days in the High Street; as a result world's first municipal fire service is founded. 1832-50 Further construction of New Town. 1836 Waverley Station built. 1847 Alexander Graham Bell, the inventor of the telephone, born in Edinburgh. 1890 Forth Rail Bridge opened. 1895 Edinburgh is lit by electric street lighting. 1925 Murrayfield Stadium built for rugby matches. 1947 First Edinburgh International Festival. 1964 Heriot-Watt University founded. 1970 Commonwealth Pool and Meadowbank Stadium built for Commonwealth Games held in same year. 1971 St James Centre opened and further demolition of Georgian houses in Princes Street. 1986 Commonwealth Games again held in Edinburgh. 1997 Referendum held to vote for return of Scottish Parliament. 1998 Site of new Scottish Parliament announced near Holyrood. 1999 Scottish Parliament sits for first time since 1707; construction of the Parliament building at Holyrood goes ahead.